What is Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam is an ampakinenootropic drug (compounds or drugs that are used to enhance or improve mental performance such as attention, alertness, facilitate learning and memory) that is used for the treatment of Central Nervous System disorders.

Generic and brand name of Aniracetam

  • The drug is available under generic name Aniracetam and brand names Ampamet, Aniracetam-Sanhome, Memodrin, Referan, Pergamid, Draganon, Sarpul and many others worldwide.
Aniracetam : Structure and chemical information
                                                                          Aniracetam : Structure and chemical information..

What is the source of the drug (natural or synthetic)

  • Aniracetam is a synthetic (man-made) pharmaceutical Racetams class of compound (i.e. Drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus).

Why is Aniracetam prescribed

  • Aniracetam plays a key role in the treatment of sleep disorders, emotional disturbances, and behavioural problems.
  • It is also recommended to treat the cognitive impairment in patients suffering from cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease.
  • It can also be useful in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, social problems, stress and sleep disorder, autism, chronic fatigue syndrome, and urinary incontinence.
  • It is also recommended for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, in the elder population and CNS disorders.
  • Aniracetam is also been prescribed for personality and anxiety disorders.
  • Aniracetam also plays an important role in decreasing the symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Pharmacophore structure: Information about the chemical structure of the drug

Aniracetam chemically belongs to the class of organic compounds which are known as benzamides. The benzamides are chemically characterized as an organic compound containing a carboxamido substituent attached to a benzene ring.The detailed chemical classification of Aniracetam is described below:

Kingdom Organic compounds
Super Class Benzenoids
Class Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class Benzamides
Direct Parent Benzamides

Chemical information of Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam is a synthetic pharmaceutical organic compound named as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone or 1-(4-methoxybenzoyl) pyrrolidin-2-one.
  • The compound has molecular formula C12H13NO3 and the molecular weight of 236 Da.
  • The melting point of Aniracetam is 121-122 °C.
  • Aniracetam is water insoluble and fat soluble supplements and thus needs to be taken with meal or fatty acids i.e. Fish oil.

What is the available strength of the drug

  • The medication is supplied as a tablet or granules/powder form for oral administration.
  • Aniracetam tablets and granular form are available in strength of 750 mg and 750/1500 mg respectively.
  • Sachet of granular form (750) of drug contains aniracetam 750 mg as the active ingredient. Other ingredients include sodium amide glycolate, sorbitol, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, balsamic aroma, sodium cyclamate, methyldroxy propyl cellulose, sodic saccharine, saccharose.
  • Sachet of 1500 granules consists of aniracetam 1500 mg as the active ingredient. The other ingredients comprises of sodium amide glycolate, grapefruit aroma, fructose, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, mint aroma, banana aroma, aspartame, sodic saccharine, methyldroxy propyl cellulose, xylitol.
  • The coated tablet of Aniracetam consists of aniracetam 750 mg as the active ingredient besides other components including sodium amide glycolate, talc, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, methyldroxy propyl cellulose, E 172.
  • The tablet is swallowed as a whole and granules mixed in water and then swallowed.
  • The drug is usually recommended two to three times a day and at least 15 minutes after meals.

How does Aniracetam work

The mode of action of Aniracetam is not fully understood but several theories have been put forth regarding the mechanism of action of the drug. These include glutamatergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, and indirect adrenergic effects etc.

  • Nicotinic Cholinergic ReceptorsLike other racetams, Aniracetam acts as a positive modulator of Nicotinic receptors involved in interaction with neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Animal studies indicate the role of Aniracetam in reducing the memory and learning loss and abnormalities brought about by cholinergic antagonists. The drug also increases the release of acetylcholine from the brain hippocampus resulting in elevating the cholinergic neurotransmission.
  • AMPA Glutamatergic ReceptorsAniracetam is a positive modulator of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptors responsible for the neurotransmission of glutamate (most common neurotransmitter in the brain). Aniracetam acts by binding to the non-active site of the AMPA receptor and modifies it resulting in reduced rate of desensitization thereby causing enhanced activation in presence of positive stimuli including glutamate. These receptors play important role in memory and are responsible for fast transmission at the synapses in the central nervous system.
  • GABAergic ReceptorsAniracetam increases the effects of GABAergic inhibition. GABA is responsible for the cognition (thinking) and emotional wellbeing, and improvement in the GABA function may serve in treating anxiety and cognitive disease.
  • Serotonergic ReceptorsAniracetam acts on serotonin receptors thereby inhibiting the breakdown of serotonin (involved in mood and behaviour regulation) and restoring its optimum level. Increased serotonin levels results in mood improvement, boosting energy, and decreasing anxiety.
  • Dopaminergic ReceptorsAniracetam causes reduction in anxiety and enhances socialization via interaction with dopamine receptors. The drug results in an increase in the release of dopamine and acts to improve mood and judgement.
  • Adrenergic ReceptorsBinding of Aniracetam to AMPA receptors causes enhanced release of noradrenaline from neurons. This brings about slight stimulatory effect on the central nervous system.
Aniracetam : Mode of action
                                                 Aniracetam : Mode of action

Recommended doses of Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam dosage differs for each individual. However, the recommended dose for clinical use is 1500mg/day divided in equal doses 2-3 times.
  • It is generally recommended to start with a lower potentially effective dose which can be gradually increased as desired.
  • Patients suffering with Senile Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are generally recommended a dose of 1000 mg to 1500 mg per day either as a single dose or as two 750 mg tablets per day.
  • In case of patients suffering with anxiety or depression symptoms following cerebral infarction (Japan), Aniracetam is recommended at a dose of 200 mg to be taken thrice a day.
  • Effective dosage recommended during treatment for dementia is 1.5 g / day.
  • Aniracetam is not recommended for children prior to 18 years.
  • The dosage of the drug has to be reduced in case of kidney dysfunction.
  • The dosage should not be changed without prior notification to a doctor as the dosage depends upon a person’s condition and health status.

When should I discontinue, withhold or modify the dose of Aniracetam

  • The recommended dose of the drug is 750-1500 mg per day and should be increased only under the supervision of the health care provider.
  • The drug is contraindicated in case of pregnancy, breastfeeding or hypersensitive response to the drug or any component of the drug.
  • It has been observed that individuals taking higher doses of Aniracetam may develop a feeling of excessive nervousness and/or digestive discomfort; therefore it is advisable to reduce the dose in such cases.
  • Dosage adjustments are required in case patients with serious renal failure and liver malfunction.
  • It is advisable to stop the use of the supplement/drug immediately and consult the healthcare practitioner if one encounters any adverse side effects.
  • Dose of Aniracetam has to be reduced when used in conjunction with other racetam or nootropic compounds.

What are the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug

  • Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that Aniracetam is rapidly absorbed from the gut even under fasting and shows bioavailability ranging from 8.6 – 11.4 %.
  • Bioavailability is presumed to increase when Aniracetam is taken with fatty acids due to its lipophilic nature but remains unexplored.
  • It has been observed that following a 300 mg and 1200 mg oral dose of Aniracetam peak plasma concentrations of 2.3mcg/L and 14.1mcg/L respectively are achieved within 2 hours.
  • Following absorption, 66% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins.
  • The drug is mainly metabolized by the hepatic system.
  • The elimination half life of Aniracetam is about 35 minutes following oral ingestion.
  • The drug is eliminated mainly in urine as metabolites (about 84%), feces (0.8%) and the remaining as carbondioxide (11% ) within 48 hours of oral administration.
  • The three primary metabolites of Aniracetam includes N-anisoyl-GABA (4-p-anisaminobutyric acid), 2-pyrrolidinone, and p-anisic acid. The main human metabolite of Aniracetam is N-Anisoyl-GABA (aka. 4,p-Anisaminobutyric acid or ABA), that accounts for 70% of orally ingested Aniracetam.
  • The average median half-life of Aniracetam 1 to 2.5 hours.
  • The average steady state volume of distribution of Aniracetam (100 mg) taken intravenously is approximately 2.5L/Kg.

Which pregnancy category (A; B; C; D; X) has been assigned to Aniracetam

  • No pregnancy category has been attributed to Aniracetam.
  • Animal studies do not advocate any teratogenic effects associated with Aniracetam, however, the use of the drug is not recommended during pregnancy and breast feeding

How to use Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam is available as film coated tablets or in granule form for oral administration.
  • The recommended daily dosage of Aniracetam is about 1,500 mg that can be taken in 2-3 times maybe once in the morning, and then in the afternoon and/or evening.
  • The drug should not be taken on an empty stomach.
  • Tablets should be swallowed whole with a sip of water and not chewed or crushed.
  • The contents of the sachets (granular form) are to be mixed in a glass of water and then swallowed.
  • The drug is taken about 15 minutes after food consumption.
  • Try to take the medicine at the same time every day.
  • Follow the instructions carefully as directed on prescription leaflet and take Aniracetam exactly as directed.
  • Aniracetam absorption can be increased when coadministered with fat sources such as fish oil.
  • It is advisable to take the drug in combination with choline supplement such as CDP Choline to enhance the benefits and lessen the side effects.
  • Aniracetam can also be stacked i.e. taken in combination with other nootropics such as Piracetam and Oxiracetam to increase the benefits.
  • Take the medication regularly, even if you feel well.
  • Do not change the dose of the drug as prescribed by your doctor as the dosage is based on patient medical condition and treatment responses.

How to store Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam is stored at normal room temperature.
  • The container should be tightly closed and kept away from excess heat, direct sun light and humidity.
  • Do not freeze or store the drug at extreme cold too.
  • Keep the drug out of reach of children

How to dispose the medicine

  • Throw away unused and opened, outdated or no longer used container.
  • Also dispose the old medicine after the expiration date.
  • Consult your pharmacist for the proper disposal of the drug.

Does Aniracetam has approval from government / FDA /or any other related agencies

  • Aniracetam can be obtained as a prescription drug throughout the European countries.
  • The drug has not received its official approval to be used in US by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) although the drug is available as over the counter at many online stores.

Other uses of the drug

  • Aniracetam may also be used for other uses not listed here. It is advisable to ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special dietary precautions should I follow

  • It is generally recommended to continue with the normal diet unless and until asked by your doctor.
  • Aniracetam should be taken with a fat source (fish oil or fat rich food such as almonds, yogurt, eggs white/yolk, whole milk, salmon, etc.) due to its fat soluble nature
  • Aniracetam must be taken in combination with a choline source including eggs, butter, beef.

What special precautions should I follow/What should I avoid while using Aniracetam

  • Aniracetam should never be taken as a self-medication practice for treatment of physiological problems.
  • Consult your physician prior to use of Aniracetam and never self prescribe the drug.
  • Aniracetam is generally not recommended to be taken in case of pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • If an individual encounters certain side effects including restlessness, anxiety, agitation at night or insomnia, it is generally recommended to administer the next dose in the early afternoon, or take only a single 1500-mg dose in the morning.
  • Dosage adjustments (reduction of the daily dosage by half) are necessary in case of patients with serious renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min).
  • Drug should not be given to patients suffering from liver malfunction.
  • Aniracetam should be used with caution in patients suffering from mild to moderate renal impairment (dose adjustment may be needed).
  • Sudden withdrawal of Aniracetam should be avoided.
  • The dosage of individual product/drug has to be reduced in case Aniracetam is used with other brain enhancement products in order to avoid side effects such as headaches and nausea.
  • Aniracetam should not be taken very late in the day as it may cause sleep delay.
  • Do not use the pharmaceutical product (Aniracetam) if seal is missing or broken.
  • Do not use the medicine if you are hypersensitive or allergic to Aniracetam or any of its ingredients.
  • Before taking Aniracetam, tell your doctor about your medical history.
  • Consult with your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking any prescription and nonprescription medications, nutritional supplements, vitamins and herbal products.
  • Do not share this medication with other persons having the similar kind of problems. Consult your doctor for more details.

Aniracetam side effects

Aniracetam play an important role in promoting increased mental processing and cognitive activities but sometimes (rarely) may be associated with side effects in case of overdose or its recurrent use.

However, there is only a limited data available about the severe effects or any fatalities associated with the use of the drug. Tolerance issues (which reduces the desired benefits) and negative withdraw symptoms may arise with the use of Aniracetam in some instances.

The severity of the side effects that may be encountered in some individuals is subject to individual variation, and interpretation. The most common side effects that may be experienced with the use of Aniracetam include diarrhea, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, and headaches:

  • Anxiety: Usage of Aniracetam may result in provoking anxiety in certain users that may cause nervousness and discomfort.  Besides, Aniracetam can also trigger racing thoughts (a series of uncontrollablethoughts that switch rapidly between ideas) and mild paranoia (an irrational feeling that people are trying to harm you), especially in social situations.  The anxiety may be caused by the effect of Aniracetam on neurotransmission (cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic) in the brain.
  • Apathy: Aniracetam use may result in apathy (absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement) or emotional blunting (a reduction in the intensity of an individual’s emotionalresponse).  These side effects are usually not severe but noticeable. The person may feel focused and cognitively enhanced at one time but may note the disappearance or dampening of emotion simultaneously.
  • Brain fog (feelings of mental confusion or lack of mental clarity): Aniracetam intake may result in worsening of the brain fog or impaired cognitive function in some individuals instead of curing it. In a few instance, individuals who have had no brain fog prior to the use of Aniracetam may feel forgetful, exhibit signs of cognitive decline, and spaced out whenever they consume the drug.
  • Diarrhea: Aniracetam administration can cause gastrointestinal irritation involving upset of stomach as well as diarrhea. This side effect is usually more common in case of individuals who take Aniracetam on an empty stomach as opposed to with food.
  • Dizziness: Aniracetam may cause dizziness in some cases which may arise due to depletion of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter), consumption of high dose of Aniracetam drug, and/or interactions with other co-administered agents. The dizziness can be subsided through choline supplementation that replenish acetylcholine or repeated Aniracetam administration that causes brain adaptability.
  • Headaches: It is the most common side effect associated with the uptake of Aniracetam. The headaches may vary from mild type to severe cases (feeling of full blown migraines). It may be caused by a depletion of acetylcholine in the brain which is often attenuated or inhibited by the concomitant use of a choline supplement.
  • Insomnia (inability to sleep): Aniracetam administration may cause worsening of insomnia even in individuals who never have experienced insomnia before taking Aniracetam.  The insomnia could in part be initiated by the stimulatory effect of Aniracetam brought about by the changes in the neurotransmission of serotonin, dopamine, and acetylcholine that alter brain waves. The time of Aniracetam administration may affect the biological cycle that ultimately compromises the ability to sleep. Co-administration of choline supplements with Aniracetam may lead to insomnia in some cases. Some instances of insomnia may be due to the overlap and additive effects of certain mechanisms of Aniracetam and choline.
  • Jaw tension: Excess jaw tension may arise in some individuals taking Aniracetam due to depletion of acetylcholine. However, excess choline supplementation may also trigger severe jaw tension besides inducing headaches and muscle tension.
  • Nausea: Administration of Aniracetam may result in nausea in some individuals.  It is most severe during the beginning of the use of Aniracetam. The condition gets subsided with time and/or with continued usage and dosage adjustments of the drug.
  • Pain: Aniracetam may elicit the onset of physical pain throughout the body mainly chest pain, muscle pain, and muscle aches by some unknown mechanisms. Coadministration of Aniracetam and choline may raise acetylcholine levels leading to muscle tension and pain.
  • Restlessness: Administration of Aniracetam may cause the feeling of restless often accompanied with anxiety, nervousness, and racing thoughts.  Restlessness may be elicited by excess choline supplementation as well as by stimulatory effects resulting from modulation of glutamatergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic transmission.
  • Skin rash / itchiness: Use of Aniracetam in rare cases can cause skin rashes, dry skin, and/or itchiness.  Although this side effect is uncommon but may occur as a result of series of events leading to increase in histamine levels brought about by Aniracetam. However, in some instances interaction of Aniracetam with other drugs can cause rashes or itching.
  • Stomach aches: Aniracetam can result in gastrointestinal discomfort when taken on an empty stomach.  This gastrointestinal distress may cause stomach aches (mild or moderate discomfort).
  • Temperature changes: Consumption of Aniracetam in some individuals causes changes in body temperature ranging from mild or moderate to low fever that may provoke the occurrence of sweats, especially at night.  Consequently, individuals may feel abnormally hot or cold throughout the day.
  • Tiredness: Aniracetam may cause fatigue and tiredness that arises due to various factors including time of drug administration, drug dosage, drug interactions and/or acetylcholine depletion.  Alteration of Aniracetam dosage and/or concomitant choline supplementation may counteract the side effect of tiredness.
  • Vertigo: Aniracetam administration can provoke vertigo characterized by the feeling of spinning environment and increased dizziness.  This adverse situation is coped by the sufferers by lying down and closing eyes. Vertigo is a result of overdose of Aniracetam and/or its interactions with concomitant supplements.

There can be other side effects than the ones listed above. Always consult the doctor immediately in case of experiencing any of the side effects and discontinue the use of Aniracetam. The side effects can be overcome by decreasing the dose and frequency of the drug intake, and coadministration of Aniracetam with choline.

What should I do in case of overdose

  • Try to avoid taking the overdose of Aniracetam.
  • In case you or some other person has taken overdose of this drug and face serious complication, medical assistance should be sought.

What should I do in case of missed a dose

  • In case of missed dosage, take it as soon as you remember and maintain a regular dosing schedule.
  • Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Keep in mind to not use a double dose to make up a missed dose.

Does Aniracetam have any interaction with other drugs

  • Studies indicate the interaction of Aniracetam with some substances/drugs which may be positive or negative. Care should be taken when coadministering the combinations.
  • Aniracetam acts synergistically with other racetams (piracetam, pramiracetam, oxiracetam, etc.) and shows enhanced nootropic effects (ability to enhance memory and other cognitive functions).
  • Coadministration of Aniracetam with acetylcholine precursors leads to an increase in the nootropic potency of Aniracetam due to its role in increased utilization and uptake of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter involved in memory and learning.
  • The acetylcholine precursors that play a key role in the interaction and enhancement of the functions of Aniracetam include the following:
  • Choline (choline citrate, choline bitartrate, and choline chloride)
  • Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) acts as acetyl donor
  • CDP-Choline
  • Lecithin
  • Centrophenoxine
  • Alpha GPC
  • DMEA
  • Phosphatidylserine (PS)
  • There are differing views regarding the use of combination of alcohol and Aniracetam (a chemical substance that changes brain function).
  • Anxiety can be better handled in some individuals with stronger effects via Aniracetam when used in combination with alcohol.
  • However, the concomitant use of Aniracetam and alcohol is generally not recommended due to enhanced intoxicating effects of alcohol. Alcohol becomes more potent in presence of Aniracetam and brings about disruption.

Does Aniracetam have any interaction with Diseases

Aniracetam is known to play a key role in the alleviating the symptoms in the following diseased state:

  • Cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease: Aniracetam is involved in treating sleep disorders, emotional disturbances, behavioral issues, and cognitive impairment (by biologically reversing the neurological changes or decreasing symptoms) in patients suffering from cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Cerebral dysfunctional disorders: Aniracetam or its metabolites bring about functional recovery in cerebral dysfunctional disorders including fear and anxiety, hypoattention, motivational drive reduction, hyperactivity, depression, impulsive behavior, suppressed REM sleep, and bladder over activity.
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Aniracetam put forth its effect by treating ADAH major symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness) besides other associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, dysthymia (persistent mild depression), social failureimpairments, and sleep disorders.
  • Autism (a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction): Aniracetam has been found to be an effective drug for the treatment of social withdrawal, language and communication problems in initial stages of autism.
  • Cerebral infarction (a stroke caused by a blockage in a blood vessel in thebrain): Aniracetam lessens the side effects associated with cerebral infarction including vertigo or dizziness.
  • Geriatric population: Aniracetam may be helpful in alleviating the symptoms of dementia and increasing ADL (activities of daily life) and improving quality of life of elderly patients.
  • Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy (a rare and progressive condition that causes problems with vision, balance, speech, movement, and swallowing): Aniracetam improves intellectual and motor functions in addition to neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.
  • CNS (central nervous system) disorders: Aniracetam brings about a reduction in some of the behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia, and in patients suffering from CNS disorders, including mental fatigue, diurnal rhythm disturbances, decreased concentration, nocturnal wandering, disturbed consciousness, reduced spontaneity and motivation.
  • Delirium (confused thinking), personality and anxiety disorders: Aniracetam plays a crucial role in treatment of these diseased conditions.
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Aniracetam causes a reduction in some cognitive deficits associated with FAS in the hippocampus area of the brain (in rats at a dosage of 50mg/kg bodyweight).
  • Liver function abnormalities: Aniracetam may interfere with the liver functions and hence its dosage should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Huntington’s chorea (brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements or making decisions, recalling events): Aniracetam worsen the symptoms of Huntington ‘s chorea .
  • Schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, and urinary incontinence (involuntary urination): Aniracetam has been found to be useful in the treatment of these conditions.
Aniracetam : Diseases interaction
            Aniracetam : Diseases interaction

Where can I get more information

Your pharmacist or health care provider can provide more information about Aniracetam.

Clinical research and current scenario of the drug

  • Studies indicate the promising role of Aniracetam for patients with cognitive deficit of mild severity.
  • Experiments have been conducted to analyze the efficacy and safety of Aniracetam in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (observed in the elderly and in patients with CNS disorders); sleep disorders, and cognitive impairment following stroke and in Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Preclinical studies signify the role of Aniracetam in functional recovery in various animal models of cerebral dysfunctional disorders including fear and anxiety, hypoattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, suppressed REM sleep, depression, and bladder overactivity etc.
  • Experimental studies highlight the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration of Aniracetam in different models of disease.
  • Studies also reveal the role of Aniracetam in the treatment of various CNS disorders or disease states including depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, social withdrawal, sleep disorders, personality and anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism, urinary incontinence (involuntary urination).
  • Animal studies indicate the effectiveness of some of the metabolites of Aniracetam in improving learning and memory.
  • Aniracetam has also been reported in the improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to motor and intellectual functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.
  • Studies indicate the effectiveness of Aniracetam in elderly patients in treatment of slight-moderate brain decay.
  • Multiple studies indicate the use of Aniracetam in protection against excitotoxicity, and its use in neuroprotection by reducing generation of free radical and improving glucose metabolism.
  • Studies indicate Aniracetam does not influence uptake of food in rodents and is non-toxic and non-teratogenic in nature.
  • The present findings also suggest the possible beneficial role of Aniracetam in the treatment for senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type.

References from chemical, biological and toxicological databases.

  • DrugBank: Aniracetam.
  •  Aniracetam | C12H13NO3 | ChemSpider.
  • Aniracetam | C12H13NO3 | PubChem.
  • An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders.
  • Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study.
  • Aniracetam Does Not Alter Cognitive and Affective Behavior in Adult C57BL/6J Mice .
  • Aniracetam: its novel therapeutic potential in cerebral dysfunctional disorders based on recent pharmacological discoveries.
  • Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study.
  • Aniracetam: its novel therapeutic potential in cerebral dysfunctional disorders based on recent pharmacological discoveries.
  • Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders.
  • Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study.

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